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20 November 2013

 

Lotus Evora 414E Hybrid

 

A highly advanced, hybrid sports car concept developed as part of a
cutting-edge collaborative R&D project funded by the UK’s Innovation
Agency, The Technology Strategy Board (TSB).

 

lotusevorahybrid400x

 

 0-60 mph / 97 km/h in 4.4 seconds
 Total hybrid range of over 300 miles / 483 kilometres
 Eco mode or Sports mode featuring realistic 7 speed paddle shift with energy recuperation
 Next generation of Lotus and HARMAN intelligent pedestrian warning system, integrating the
 advanced HALOsonic sound synthesis system with video technology
 Torque vectoring for improved dynamic stability

 

The Lotus Evora 414E Hybrid has been developed as technology demonstrator from Lotus
Engineering, produces 414 PS (305 kW) of power, promises breathtaking performance from a
highly efficient propulsion system. The concept showcases new developments in plug-in rangeextended
electric propulsion and new electronic technologies to enhance driver involvement.
The range extended electric drive of the Evora 414E Hybrid consists of two electric motors driving
each of the rear wheels independently via single speed geartrain, integrated into a common
transmission housing, thus enabling torque vectoring for stability control of the vehicle. Electrical
power is stored in a lithium polymer battery pack which is optimised for energy density, efficiency
and high power demand and mounted in the centre of the vehicle for stability and safety.
Additional range is provided by the Lotus Range Extender engine, an optimised 1.2 litre, threecylinder
engine, designed specifically for series hybrid vehicles. The drivetrain is designed to
combine astonishing performance with efficient, low emissions driving.

Driver involvement is enhanced by the incorporation of HALOsonic Internal and External
Electronic Sound Synthesis technologies from Lotus and HARMAN, which provide sound
contouring within the cabin and improve pedestrian safety outside the vehicle. Integrated with the
HALOsonic technology, the Evora 414E Hybrid also showcases a brand new technology from
Lotus Engineering, a sports mode that simulates a 7 speed, paddle shift transmission that
combines exceptional driver involvement for a hybrid sports car and optimised energy
recuperation.
The Evora 414E Hybrid has been designed to highlight Lotus’ innovative electric and hybrid
vehicle technology without distracting from the pure sportscar character of the Evora.

 

 

The Drivetrain

For the Lotus Evora 414E Hybrid, Lotus Engineering has developed a highly efficient, high
performance drivetrain system consisting of twin motors supplied by EVO Electric Limited, each
limited to providing 152 kW (207 PS / 204 hp) of power and 400 Nm (295 lbft) of torque to each
wheel via independent, single speed, reduction transmissions integrated into a single housing,
enabling torque vectoring dynamic control of the vehicle.
The vehicle energy storage system is made up of the latest Lithium Polymer battery chemistry
providing 15 kWH energy storage capacity. The battery pack is optimised for energy density,
efficiency and high power demand, with over 300 kW discharge capability.
The Range Extender engine provides 35 kW of power at 3,500 rpm via the integrated electrical
generator. The engine uses an optimised two-valve, port-fuel injection combustion system to
reduce cost and mass and can be operated on alcohol-based fuels and/or gasoline. The
generator converts mechanical energy to electrical energy to replenish the battery pack charge
and provides additional vehicle range in a small light weight package. The generator is also used
as a motor to start the range extender engine. The low mass of the whole range extender unit (85
kg) and compact package makes it ideal for the series hybrid drivetrain in the Evora 414E Hybird.

The operation of the range extender engine, including the power management of the batteries
and motor are managed by Lotus’ electronic control units and software systems. Full energy
management of all the operating systems is the key to maximising performance and operation
while minimising energy consumption and CO2 emissions.
For everyday commuting journeys, up to 35 miles can be travelled using battery power. The
battery can be charged overnight using a conventional domestic mains supply through a socket
concealed by the rear number plate. This permits the vehicle to operate with zero tailpipe
emissions. For longer journeys, exceeding the battery capacity, the highly efficient range
extender engine is used as a generator to supply the motor with electrical power and top up the
battery.

 

Driving Dynamics and Torque Vectoring

The Lotus Evora 414E Hybrid offers exhilarating, all-round dynamic performance and takes
advantage of Lotus developed torque vectoring dynamics. Torque vectoring, which is the capacity
to generate different torques at each of the driving wheels, is particularly suited to electric
vehicles.
A key benefit of separate motors to drive each rear wheel individually is that this facilitates a
much higher level of vehicle dynamics control. Driving the wheels with different levels of torque
can not only generate all the capabilities of a conventional ESP system using energy
regeneration as opposed to brake application, but it can also actively drive each wheel forward at
different rates, producing a turning moment at the rear of the vehicle in addition to the steering
input.
This can be used to enhance low speed manoeuvrability and ease of parking but can also be
used to produce a much greater level of straight line high speed stability. Incorporating lateral
sensors the system also provides stability control capabilities and levels of steering response
normally only associated with heavy and expensive rear steer systems. This can provide
automatic correction of both understeer and oversteer characteristics. In addition, the standard
method to provide high speed stability of designing the rear wheels to toe-in is not required as the
torque vectoring system automatically provides this stability control, with toe-in increasing rolling
resistance, lowering fuel economy and increasing tyre wear. Lotus‘ long history of active
suspension control provides the core capability to develop this technology and provides
extraordinary driving pleasure on the Evora 414E Hybrid.

 

Driver Interaction

The Evora 414E Hybrid provides less of a psychological step change for people familiar with high
performance cars compared to other electric and hybrid sports cars. The car has a simulated
paddle shift gear change offering ultra quick gear changes reminiscent of a dual clutch
transmission, while actually being a single speed. This enhances the driver interaction with the
vehicle and provides a driving experience similar to current internal combustion engine high
performance sports cars. The Evora 414E Hybrid uses a column mounted paddle shift to simulate
the gear change and a synthesised engine sound changes frequency with virtual gear selection.
The drive torque is also modulated to simulate a physical feeling of sporty gearshift.

 

The virtual gearshift simulation, like a conventional gearbox, is used to change the driving
characteristics and response of the vehicle. The most significant aspect that this offers the driver
is the ability to control the vehicle deceleration by simulating engine braking through a virtual
downshift in gears. Unlike true engine braking, the Lotus system does not dissipate the energy of
the moving vehicle through internal engine friction but uses the electric motors to regenerate the
energy back into the battery. While many electric and hybrid vehicles provide engine braking, this
is generally at a fixed rate or preselected rate. In some driving situations this can either be too
aggressive, slowing the vehicle unnecessarily, or too light, requiring additional braking
application. The Lotus system effectively allows the driver to select the appropriate level of
regeneration by simulating stepping down by one, two or even three gears. The simulation of
engine braking through both the gear noise change and the retardation of the vehicle is fully
intuitive to a driver familiar with a conventional gearbox. The simulated gearchange capability can
be selected for greater driving involvement or switched off for more relaxed driving.

 

The Evora 414E Hybrid uses the Lotus Engineering and HARMAN developed HALOsonic suite of
noise solutions. The first of which is Electronic Sound Synthesis. This generates engine sounds
inside the vehicle through the audio system where it provides an exciting sports sound in line with
the brand and nature of the vehicle together with a high level of driver feedback in an intuitive
manner. In addition, it also generates sound on the outside of the vehicle through speakers
mounted at the front and rear to provide a warning to increase pedestrian safety, which is
especially important for electric and hybrid vehicles which can be difficult to hear at slower
speeds.
There are four driver selectable engine sounds currently on the vehicle, two of which have been
designed to have characteristics of a multi-cylinder conventional V6 and V12 engine. There is
also a futuristic sound and a combination of a conventional engine and a futuristic sound,
enhancing the brand identity of the vehicle as a step forward in electric vehicle design.
The addition of this Lotus patented simulated gearshift concept not only provides for an exciting
and involving driving experience that customers would expect from a Lotus, but also enhances
the driver’s control of the vehicle while providing the capability for more efficient operation
through a greater use of energy regeneration.

 

HALOsonic: Sound Technology with Vision

This cutting-edge enhanced version of the HALOsonic safety system incorporates input from
imaging sensors to enhance the quality of the sound synthesis system. HALOsonic has been
developed specifically for electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles.
The system on this latest version of HALOsonic, a collaboration between HARMAN and Lotus,
uses a single camera to determine the distance, trajectory and speed of pedestrians and other
road users, calculating the risk of collision by comparing this information with the car’s path. The
new HALOsonic system uses this data to actively control the volume of the External Sound
Synthesis to warn pedestrians of the vehicle’s location, thereby improving pedestrian safety and
reducing noise pollution. Under certain conditions the system will generate an audible and visual
warning for the driver using the Internal Sound Synthesis and instrument panel.
The new active system is optimised to operate in urban environments where there is the greatest
risk of a collision with a pedestrian. It is calibrated to actively control the volume and pitch of the
sound synthesised while the vehicle is travelling from 0 - 75 km/h, continually evaluating the risk
of a pedestrian collision and operating in an area up to 60 metres ahead of the vehicle. All of the
HALOsonic systems are designed to use low levels of power and with the new active version
there will be less power consumed as the system will only increase the volume when there is a
risk of an impact.

This innovative new active safety system is integrated into the HALOsonic range of products,
which includes: External Sound Synthesis, Internal Sound Synthesis, Road Noise Cancellation
and Engine Order Cancellation. The HALOsonic range has been designed by Lotus Engineering
and HARMAN and offers a production ready technology as a stand-alone or integrated ICE
system solution.

 

About Lotus

Group Lotus plc, wholly-owned subsidiary of DRB-HICOM, is based in Norfolk, UK, and has
three operating divisions: Lotus Cars, Lotus Engineering and Lotus Racing.
Lotus Cars builds world class, high performance sports cars including the award-winning Evora,
the iconic Elise and the stunning Exige.
Lotus Engineering provides comprehensive and versatile consultancy services to many of the
world's OEMs and Tier 1 suppliers and is an internationally recognised automotive engineering
consultancy. Global facilities include those in the US, China and offices in Germany and Japan.
Lotus is a global high-tech company, committed to driving forward technology for both Lotus Cars
and its Engineering clients, spearheading research into such areas as hybrids, electric vehicles
and renewable fuels.
Lotus Motorsport builds and develops vehicles for GT racing with the Evora GX, GTC, GT4, and
GTS, in addition to racing vehicles such as the Exige V6 Cup and Elise Cup cars. PETRONAS is
the Official Lubricants Partner for Lotus Racing vehicles competing in various high profile
international GT categories. Lotus also competes in F1® with the Lotus F1 Team, racing in the
iconic Black and Gold Livery.
Lotus Originals is the retail operation for all of Lotus’ non-car products. A diverse collection of
luxury apparel, luggage, gifts, toys and limited edition collectables can be bought online at
www.lotusoriginals.com or at any of the dedicated Lotus Originals outlets including the flagship
Regent Street store in London’s Piccadilly.

  

 

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